Intestinal infections – is a group of infectious diseases that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include diarrhea (diarrhea), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, etc.
The cause of acute intestinal infections are:
- Bacteria (salmonella, shigella, enteropathogenic E. coli, staphylococci, yersinia, etc.);
- Viruses (rotaviruses, enteroviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses, parvoviruses);
- Protozoa (giardia, amebas, balantidia).
Pathways of infection intestinal infections may be different:
Bacteria and protozoa can be contracted through:
- Poorly washed vegetables, fruits;
- Stale or insufficiently cooked food;
- Dirty hands;
- Bathing in bodies of water with water in the mouth.
Rotavirus, like other UCI-causing viruses, is transmitted by airborne droplets, that is, by contact with a sick person or a carrier.
Characteristics of symptoms when infected acute intestinal infections.
Rotavirus infection is characterized by a relatively mild course of the disease with the presence of vomiting, watery stools, concomitant symptoms of acute respiratory infections.
Dysentery is characterized by a severe course of the disease, with the presence of mucous stools with blood, severe abdominal pain and cramps.
Salmonellosis is characterized by the presence of stools in the form of «marshy sludge» – liquid, deep – green. It is not always possible to identify the causative agent of UCI, so the diagnosis may sound: KINE (intestinal infection of unknown etiology) with an indication of the leading syndrome – gastritis (vomiting), enteritis (watery stools), colitis (liquid stools).
Treatment of the disease begin immediately before the results of tests to identify the causative agent and are carried out along the following lines:
- Combating pathogenic microbes that are the direct cause of the disease and opportunistic flora, for this purpose antiviral, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiprotozoal medicines such as: ersefuril, enterofuril, baktisubtil, amoxicillin, [enterol], [arbidol], amixin, lavomax, macmiror, bitricide, trichopol, tinidazole, pyrantel are needed.
- Maintaining normal gastrointestinal function by taking enzymes, for example: mesim forte, Creon, Penzital, Micrazyme.
- Maintaining and restoring the normal intestinal microflora by taking medicines with lacto- and bifidobacteria, such as chylac forte, [linex], bifiform, acidol, yogulact.
- Prevention and control of dehydration, for example with medicines such as: Rehydron, ORS Alvogen, etc.
- Excretion of toxins produced by pathogenic microbes, reducing their harmful effects, for this purpose it is necessary to take enteric agents, such as medications such as enterosgel, polysorb, lactofiltrum, filter, [smekta].
- Symptomatic therapy.
In intestinal infections, especially in the acute period, it is advisable to start intestinal antiseptics (antimicrobial, antiviral, antiprotozoal, antibacterial drugs) as soon as possible. Nitrofuran derivatives have high activity against most of the causative agents of OCI. These drugs do not cause dysbacteriosis and do not suppress the immune system. Duration of treatment with intestinal antiseptic – 3 to 7 days in age-appropriate doses.
It is desirable to continue taking probiotics, enzymes, enterosorbents, saline solutions or familiar to the sick person drinks (teas, compotes, morses) simultaneously with intestinal antiseptic.
There are also folk remedies that can be taken for UCI Decoction of pomegranate peel, rice broth, oak bark, etc., These can help stop diarrhea.
It is necessary to monitor proper nutrition in the acute phase of intestinal infection. Nutrition should be sparing:
- Do not introduce new foods into the diet, which the child has never eaten before (especially children under 2 years);
- meals should be divided into small portions and eat them as often as possible;
- The following foods must be excluded: raw vegetables and fruits (bananas are allowed), raw milk, fried foods, fatty, spicy foods, sweets.
It is obligatory to always carry out prevention of intestinal infections, this requires:
- Observance of personal hygiene. When returning from the street and after using the toilet, you should wash your hands with soap and water;
- Food preparation rules. Vegetables and fruit should be thoroughly washed with soap and water, and herbs and berries – Soak for 10–15 minutes in water and then rinse under running water. Compliance with the temperature and time storage of perishable foodstuffs, as well as the rules of thermal processing of meat and fish will eliminate the possibility of infection with EDC.
The material is for information purposes. Medicines, biologically active additives and other goods are given as an example of their possible use and. Before using medicines, dietary supplements and medical devices and other products, always consult a specialist.