Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases — a set of recreational measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of pathologies and eliminating risk factors. STDs – venereal pathology, the main route of spread of which is unprotected sexual intercourse. Despite the fact that all STDs differ in origin and manifest themselves with various clinical symptoms, they have common features: they are highly contagious and very dangerous to human health..
Sexually active women and men are always at risk of contracting STDs, regardless of social status and financial situation. The notion that sexually transmitted diseases only affect persons who have promiscuous sex life and consume alcohol is not entirely justified. It is simply unrealistic to be 100% secure. You can reduce the likelihood of infection by following simple rules of prevention..
The source and reservoir of infection is a sick person. The microorganisms that cause STDs are highly susceptible to changing environmental conditions. The causative agents of pathology are viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The mixed form of infection occurs in persons with antisocial behavior, who have promiscuous sex without protection.
The main, but not the only, way of spreading the infection is sexual. Infection occurs during vaginal, oral, or anal contact. Most viral genital infections are transmitted by household contact. In case of violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membrane, the entrance gate of the infection is formed. Infection occurs with a kiss, a close hug, through household items. Infection is possible in public places — pools, baths, saunas. Almost all sexually transmitted diseases are spread vertically from a sick mother to a fetus in utero or to a newborn during childbirth. As a result, children develop various pathologies from the first days of life..
Some STDs are spread parenterally using a non-sterile syringe. This is the main route of transmission of syphilitic and HIV infections..
Each sexually transmitted disease manifests itself with characteristic clinical signs. But there are a number of common symptoms that arise with each of them. This is increased fatigue, fatigue, mucopurulent discharge from the urethra, discomfort in the perineum, regional lymphadenitis, painful sensations during coitus, rashes on the female and male genitals, persistent subfebrile condition.
In women, the symptomatology is due to the peculiarities of physiology. They complain of dryness and burning during sex, intermenstrual bleeding, itching in the perineum, profuse vaginal discharge, edema and hyperemia of the vulvar mucosa.
In men, symptoms of dysuria appear, ejaculatory dysfunction, hemospermia, pain in the perineum, radiating to the scrotum or rectum, rashes on the head of the penis and around it, discharge from the urethra of various consistencies: from watery transparent to thick purulent. Sick persons, when they learn about the infection of a genital infection, become psychologically depressed. This leads to family problems, depression, conflict situations..
Most patients with STDs require the help of a psychologist or psychotherapist. If such symptoms appear, you should consult a specialist as soon as possible. Self-medication can lead to the development of dangerous complications. Both sexual partners need to undergo a diagnostic examination. After interviewing and examining patients, the dermatovenerologist directs women for consultation to a gynecologist, and men — to the urologist. To confirm or refute the alleged diagnosis, patients need to submit a biomaterial for analysis. They take blood, a swab from the urethra or cervix. Serodiagnostics is carried out in order to detect antibodies to various pathogens, bacteriological examination of biomaterial in order to detect and identify the pathogen. PCR — the most accurate method for diagnosing STDs.
Treatment of STIs is complex, consisting in the use of immunostimulants and modulators, antiviral and antibacterial agents, hepatoprotectors, cardiac glycosides, vitamins and minerals, adaptogens, antihypoxants, metabolics, antiparasitic and antifungal drugs. All medicines are prescribed by a dermatovenerologist on an individual basis after receiving the results of the patient’s examination.
Primary prevention of STDs is carried out before infection and consists in informing high-risk groups about existing pathologies, methods of contraception, the mechanism of transmission of infection, symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and their consequences. Professionals should conduct conversations with the public about changing sexual behavior of modern man.
Secondary prevention is carried out after intercourse and involves working with carriers of STDs or sick people, the goals of which are: to prevent infection of others and the development of complications in patients.
Public or social prevention of STIs is carried out at the state level, mainly among adolescents who have not yet entered into sexual activity. Girls and guys should be explained how to protect themselves from STDs and how to behave if such diseases are detected..
Community prevention includes:
- Carrying out medical examinations,
- Identification and treatment of chronic pathologies,
- Examination of pregnant women,
- Thorough testing of blood transfusion components,
- Sanitary and educational work of the population.
Information messages occupy a special place in the social prevention of STDs. Sexually transmitted disease warnings make young people think about their sexual behavior. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle, inter-sex relations, drug refusal — the main directions of sanitary and educational work. Individual prevention of sexually transmitted infections takes a leading place among measures to prevent their spread.
Individual prevention rules:
- Avoid casual sex and have sex with one partner. Even the most «decent» people are not always healthy. Most sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic. Marital fidelity and monogamy — the only sure remedy for sexually transmitted diseases.
- Use barrier methods of contraception — condoms. Sexually active men and women need to remember that these contraceptives do not provide 100% protection during intercourse. Sometimes they break. The lesion can be located on the scrotum, pubis, thighs, clitoris and other areas not covered by a condom. If there is damage to the skin and mucous membrane, infection is inevitable..
- Drug prevention consists in the use of drugs with antimicrobial action: spermicides, local antiseptics, systemic antibiotics. Spermicide — local disinfectants produced in various dosage forms. Their main action — suppression of sperm activity, and protection against STDs is weak. The most popular and effective among them are suppositories and tablets. «Contraceptin-T», «Pharmatex», «Patentex Oval». For the prevention of genital infections, the simplest means are traditionally used. — medical alcohol or a solution of potassium permanganate, as well as specially designed preparations — «Betadine», «Miramistin», «Chlorhexidine». At the end of intercourse, these drugs are injected into the vagina and urethra, they rinse the mouth, treat the external genitalia. The disinfection process is quite fast and very effective. Antibiotics are taken in case of emergency in «shock» dose once to prevent the spread of infection. The effectiveness of spermicides and antiseptics increases significantly when they are used together with a condom..
- Avoid sexual contact with people at risk who come into contact with blood — nurses, dentists, beauticians, surgeons, persons who received blood transfusions or purifications. A condom must be used if the sexual partner is a drug addict, prefers group sex, swingers, or is engaged in prostitution.
- Observe hygiene standards and rules of personal hygiene, use individual hygiene products and items, sex toys, cosmetics, linen, towels. Demand the same from a sexual partner.
- Women visit a gynecologist once every six months, and men visit a urologist once a year.
- Vaccinate against a viral infection — hepatitis, human papilloma.
- After an unprotected act and the appearance of characteristic clinical signs, an urgent need to visit a doctor.
- Timely treat identified viruses and bacteria, during therapy, refrain from sexual activity.
Prevention of STDs after accidental communication is called emergency.
Men and women are advised to urinate in order to remove pathogenic microbes from the urethra, wash their hands and external genitals with soap, dry them with a towel, treat them with an antiseptic, and change their underwear. If it is not possible to visit a dermatovenerologist in the near future, you must take «shock» a dose of antibiotics, such as, «Azithromycin». Within two hours from the moment of contact, women are recommended to insert a gauze swab dipped in a solution into the vagina «Miramistina» or «Chlorhexidine», men — inject a few milliliters of antiseptic into the urethra «Gibitana» or «Cidipola», massaging the external opening of the urethra. Compliance with these preventive measures will avoid the severe consequences of infection..
Emergency prophylaxis is carried out only in exceptional, extremely rare cases and potentially hazardous to health situations. Medicines from the group of antiseptics, with regular use, damage the mucous membrane, which leads to the formation of erosions and ulcers. Frequent douching flushes beneficial microorganisms from the vagina, dysbiosis develops, pathogenic and opportunistic microflora is activated. In men, frequent use of antiseptics can lead to chemical burns of the urethral mucosa, its narrowing and the development of allergic urethritis. After emergency prophylaxis of sexually transmitted diseases, it is necessary to be examined after 3-4 weeks. But the most effective means today, guaranteed to avoid contracting STDs, is complete sexual abstinence..
In the absence of timely and correct treatment, STDs can lead to the development of complications: infertility, inflammation of the prostate, orchitis, endometritis, epididymitis. To avoid such ailments, you need to be more attentive and responsible to yourself and your loved ones. Preventing your mistakes is much easier than treating serious illnesses.